Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and

Ag-NPs functionalized with three different monosaccharides and ethylene glycol were synthesized and characterised.

Oxidative stress and toxicity was evaluated by protein carbonylation and MTT assay, respectively.

They can deliver large-cargo molecules, such as oligonucleotides, into cells.

Endocytosis and direct penetration have been suggested as the two major uptake mechanisms, a subject still under debate.

By incubating with epithelial and endothelial cells, we found that the rod-like bionanoparticles with various aspect ratios had different internalization pathways in different cell lines: microtubules transport in He La and clathrin-mediated uptake in HUVEC for TMV.

Differently from most nanoparticles, for all the three TMV nano-rods with different aspect ratios, macropinocytosis takes no effect on the internalization in both cell types.

These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity.

Cellular internalization pathway is essential to the understanding of viral infection and the development of therapeutic agents.Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses - most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature.A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge.Increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in various products is resulting in a greater likelihood of human exposure to these materials.Nevertheless, little is still known about the influence of carbohydrates on the toxicity and cellular uptake of nanoparticles.

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